Closing Nutrient Cycles through the Use of System-Internal Resource Streams: Implications for Circular Multitrophic Food Production Systems and Aquaponic Feed Development

Autoren: Christopher Shaw, Klaus Knopf, Laura Klatt, Gabina Marin Arellano, Werner Kloas

CUBES Circle   |   04.2023    peer reviewed
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In order to further close nutrient cycles of aquaponic systems, it could be possible to integrate a third trophic level in the form of insect larvae production (i.e., black soldier fly larvae) to recycle internal waste streams into valuable nutrients. This would present opportunities to formulate sustainable circular aquafeeds that combine these internally available nutrients with complementary external raw materials. The ingredient composition of feeds for such circular multitrophic food production systems (CMFS) may affect fish performance as well as excretion of important dissolved plant nutrients such as N, P and K. Hence, fish meal from catfish processing (CM) as base ingredient was combined with variable levels of poultry by-product meal (PM) and black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFM) into three marine-ingredient-free experimental diets corresponding to hypothetical production scenarios of a CMFS that aims to integrate aquaponics with insect larvae production. These experimental diets and a commercial diet (COM) were compared using isonitrogenous and isolipidic formulations. They were fed to African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and evaluated concerning growth performance and nutrient excretion. All diets resulted in similar total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) excretion, whereas the increase of dietary PM inclusion from 0% (BSF diet) to 20% (MIX diet) and to 41% (PM diet) and concomitant reduction of BSFM inclusion led to increasingly higher soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) excretion per unit of feed compared to the COM diet. While the PM diet enabled the best growth and feed conversion performance, the MIX and especially the BSF diet produced more similar performance to the COM diet, which generated the highest dissolved K excretion. The MIX and the PM diet resulted in the highest Ca and P, yet lower N content in the fish feces. Results indicate that combining CM with elevated levels of PM in the diet of African catfish could improve growth performance and reduce the need for P fertilization in aquaponics when compared to industrial diets optimized for low environmental impact. Findings are discussed regarding their implications for CMFS and aquaponic feed formulation.

Publikationsdatum: 04.2023
CUBES Circle

Verlag: MDPI AG

Quelle: Sustainability | 9 | 7374 | 15

Publikationstyp: Journal-Artikel